Redosing clodronate on an as-needed basis

Well, depending on the clinical case that we're seeing and the primary disease, and also I should say primary, secondary and tertiary diseases as well, that entire package of dysfunction; my redosing is really case-dependent. However, the duration of action... I'm always hoping to be able to treat a horse once and fix a problem but that often is not realistic, and especially in the middle-aged athletes that have conjoint medical issues that, you know, they work together for dysfunction, unfortunately, and you have to fix the whole package.

A challenge that we have sometimes as we'll get such terrific results with our first dose that then we have the client or the trainer really encouraging us to do it again. But I think we need to be careful and thoughtful as really the medical managers of that horse to discourage just a routine redosing and I don't believe in pre-emptive or preventative medications. Research has shown they don't work for other medications and it's a philosophy of practice and a philosophy of sports medicine that fortunately has really been changing.

If a horse needs 10 joints injected and they really need that, they probably shouldn't be going to that horse show. And so perhaps if they need one then for sure, yes, that's a different story. But I think we need to change a little bit of that culture that we've had for years and years and it's changing. I'm really optimistic the younger trainers and the younger veterinarians have not had that culture of just pre-emptively injecting horses.

So I'm really optimistic that's coming and OSPHOS is certainly part of that treatment, but totally safe. If we have a chronic case that does need it every three to four months, the safety data is clear that were we're in in the safety zone. Especially since we can see that we're not significantly changing CTX-1 levels so we aren't doing any damage to the bone at all.